Not the Last Word", Stalin Library (with all 13 volumes of Stalin's, Library of Congress: Revelations from the Russian Archives, Electronic archive of Stalin's letters and presentations, Joseph Stalin Newsreels // Net-Film Newsreels and Documentary Films Archive, Stalin Biography from Spartacus Educational, A List of Key Documentary Material on Stalin, Stalinka: The Digital Library of Staliniana, Electronic archive of Stalin’s letters and presentations, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Russian Revolution, Russian Civil War, Polish–Soviet War, 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 18th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance, 19th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Aggravation of class struggle under socialism, National delimitation in the Soviet Union, Demolition of Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization, 1906 Bolshevik raid on the Tsarevich Giorgi, Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia, 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Political Administration of the Ministry of Defence, General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, League of Russian Revolutionary Social Democracy Abroad, League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class, Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, 19th Presidium of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 18th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 17th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 16th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 15th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 14th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 13th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 12th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 11th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 10th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 9th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 8th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972, Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, List of Eastern Bloc agents in the United States, American espionage in the Soviet Union and Russian Federation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joseph_Stalin&oldid=1000461432, 19th-century poets from Georgia (country), 20th-century poets from Georgia (country), Russian Social Democratic Labour Party members, Heads of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union members, Honorary Members of the USSR Academy of Sciences, People of World War II from Georgia (country), Recipients of the Order of the Red Banner, Recipients of the Order of Suvorov, 1st class, First convocation members of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Articles containing Georgian-language text, Articles containing Russian-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 05:51. Lenin died of a suspected stroke on January 21st, 1924. Remember that photograph of Joseph Stalin with the flower in his hair on his way to San Francisco? Archpriest of Leninism, Stalin also promoted his own cult in the following year by having the city of Tsaritsyn renamed Stalingrad (now Volgograd). Unlike Lenin and Trotsky, he was not an intellectual and had the common touch, and he was well-liked by many.. He was a dictator who terrorized the population and sent many people to prisons and labour camps.  A 2017 Pew Research survey had 57% of Georgians saying he played a positive role in history, compared to 18% of those expressing the same for Mikhail Gorbachev. , While Stalin was in exile, Russia entered the First World War, and in October 1916 Stalin and other exiled Bolsheviks were conscripted into the Russian Army, leaving for Monastyrskoe.  It was aimed for economic autarky within the Eastern Bloc.  Various East European communists also visited Stalin in Moscow.  The 1931 and 1932 harvests had been poor ones because of weather conditions and had followed several years in which lower productivity had resulted in a gradual decline in output.  Stalin had wanted Hitler captured alive; he had his remains brought to Moscow to prevent them becoming a relic for Nazi sympathisers. Builds a Totalitarian State ~ .g' (pages . , Stalin suggested that a unified, but demilitarised, German state be established, hoping that it would either come under Soviet influence or remain neutral.  This resulted in the protracted Battle of Stalingrad.  While head of the Soviet Union he remained in contact with many of his old friends in Georgia, sending them letters and gifts of money.  He had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage.  As the Red Army reconquered the Caucasus and Crimea, various ethnic groups living in the region—the Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingushi, Karachai, Balkars, and Crimean Tatars—were accused of having collaborated with the Germans.  With Order No.  That month featured a surge in arrests for "anti-Soviet agitation" as those celebrating Stalin's death came to police attention.  Many Soviet soldiers engaged in looting, pillaging, and rape, both in Germany and parts of Eastern Europe. , Following earlier clashes between Polish and Russian troops, the Polish–Soviet War broke out in early 1920, with the Poles invading Ukraine and taking Kyiv on 7 May. This interpretation has been rejected by more recent historical studies. His development plan was centered on government control of the economy and included the forced collectivization of Soviet agriculture, in which the government took control of farms.  With the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in July 1937, the Soviet Union and China signed a non-aggression pact the following August.  He also pushed for "war booty", which would permit the Soviet Union to directly seize property from conquered nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation, and a clause was added permitting this to occur with some limitations.  He attended the Fifth RSDLP Congress, held in London in May–June 1907.  His motives in doing so have been much debated by historians.  Stalin saw Trotsky—whom he personally despised—as the main obstacle to his dominance within the party.  Christian, Muslim, and Buddhist clergy faced persecution. "De-Stalinization" When Nikita became the leader of the Soviet Union, he began something History.  Although he had been tasked with briefing the Bolshevik delegates of the Second Congress of Soviets about the developing situation, Stalin's role in the coup had not been publicly visible. Stalin, Trotsky, Sverdlov, and Lenin lived at the Kremlin. How did Stalin Consolidate His Power in the Soviet Union? How did Stalin become Lenin's potential heir?  At a banquet held for army commanders, he described the Russian people as "the outstanding nation" and "leading force" within the Soviet Union, the first time that he had unequivocally endorsed the Russians over other Soviet nationalities.  Twenty six countries officially recognise it under the legal definition of genocide.  In turn, the anti-communist governments of Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1936.  To secure access to the dwindling food supply, in May 1918 Sovnarkom sent Stalin to Tsaritsyn to take charge of food procurement in southern Russia.  The last elements of workers' control over industry were removed, with factory managers increasing their authority and receiving privileges and perks; Stalin defended wage disparity by pointing to Marx's argument that it was necessary during the lower stages of socialism. Kamenev, Bukharin, and Zinoviev were all later put on trial, in a show trial and executed, on the trumped charges of plotting against the state.  The government increasingly promoted Pan-Slavist sentiment, while encouraging increased criticism of cosmopolitanism, particularly the idea of "rootless cosmopolitanism", an approach with particular repercussions for Soviet Jews.  Shortly after the conference, Lenin and Grigory Zinoviev decided to co-opt Stalin to the committee. Through the Five-Year Plans, the country underwent agricultural collectivisation and rapid industrialisation, creating a centralised command economy.  In Baku he had reassembled his gang, the Outfit, which continued to attack Black Hundreds and raised finances by running protection rackets, counterfeiting currency, and carrying out robberies. It was won by the Soviet Union, the aggressor, which gained part of the Karelian Isthmus.  Stalin was sociable and enjoyed a joke. , Stalin could play different roles to different audiences, and was adept at deception, often deceiving others as to his true motives and aims.  A Bolshevik-controlled ship, the Aurora, opened fire on the Winter Palace; the Provisional Government's assembled delegates surrendered and were arrested by the Bolsheviks.  He gave nicknames to his favourites, for instance referring to Yezhov as "my blackberry". Joseph Stalin, Leader of the Soviet Union (1878-1953) Watch later.  Stalin adopted the Leninist view on the need for a revolutionary vanguard who could lead the proletariat rather than being led by them.  At the second Cominform conference, held in Bucharest in June 1948, East European communist leaders all denounced Tito's government, accusing them of being fascists and agents of Western capitalism.  The two states continued trading, undermining the British blockade of Germany. Stalin and fellow senior Bolshevik Leon Trotsky both endorsed Lenin's plan of action, but it was initially opposed by Kamenev and other party members.  He demoted Molotov, and increasingly favoured Beria and Malenkov for key positions. However, he managed to turn this to his advantage, and in his role as General Secretary, he built a power base in the country. , Stalin's Soviet Union has been characterised as a totalitarian state, with Stalin its authoritarian leader.  At the conference, Stalin repeated previous promises to Churchill that he would refrain from a "Sovietization" of Eastern Europe.  When Stalin learned that people in Western countries affectionately called him "Uncle Joe" he was initially offended, regarding it as undignified. He consolidated his power further after becoming Chairman of the Council of Ministers on 27 March 1958. In 1910 he changed his name to Stalin, meaning in Russian ‘Man of Steel’ supposedly adopted to protect his real identity from the police and perhaps also to create a public image as a true revolutionary.  Through the Communist International, Stalin's government exerted a strong influence over Marxist parties elsewhere in the world; initially, Stalin left the running of the organisation largely to Bukharin.  On 3 May 1939, Stalin replaced his western-oriented foreign minister Maxim Litvinov with Vyacheslav Molotov.  Stalin opposed the idea of separate Georgian, Armenian, and Azerbaijani autonomous republics, arguing that these would likely oppress ethnic minorities within their respective territories; instead he called for a Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. , The historian Robert Conquest stated that Stalin perhaps "determined the course of the twentieth century" more than any other individual. Although historians readily acknowledge Stalin as the sole leader in 1929, the question remains on how was Stalin able to become the Soviet Union’s sole leader while he was regarded as a minor player who had no chance in defeating Trotsky.  He was moved onto a couch and remained there for three days. Using the idea of collective responsibility as a basis, Stalin's government abolished their autonomous republics and between late 1943 and 1944 deported the majority of their populations to Central Asia and Siberia. Who was the first American diplomat to meet with Lenin?  On 26 May, Stalin was moved to Ukraine, on the Southwest Front.  In December 2010, unknown persons cut off its head and it was destroyed in an explosion in 2011. “We fully opened the …  Yakov had a daughter, Galina, before fighting for the Red Army in the Second World War. The office had three different names throughout its existence: Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1923–1946), Chairman of the Council of Ministers (1946–1991) and Prime Minister of the Soviet Union (1991).  Believing that victory was assured by numerical superiority, he sent large numbers of Red Army troops into battle against the region's anti-Bolshevik White armies, resulting in heavy losses; Lenin was concerned by this costly tactic.  The NKVD recorded that between 26 and 27 million Soviet citizens had been killed, with millions more being wounded, malnourished, or orphaned. In 1921, Stalin was appointed to the position of General Secretary. , Their differences also became personal; Lenin was particularly angered when Stalin was rude to his wife Krupskaya during a telephone conversation. From there Lenin led the October Revolution to overthrow the provisional government that had overthrown the monarchy during the February Revolution.  The 1947 Hungarian elections were also rigged, with the Hungarian Working People's Party taking control. , — Lenin's Testament, 4 January 1923; this was possibly composed by Krupskaya rather than Lenin himself.  He also expressed patronage for scientists whose research fitted within his preconceived interpretation of Marxism; he for instance endorsed the research of agrobiologist Trofim Lysenko despite the fact that it was rejected by the majority of Lysenko's scientific peers as pseudo-scientific. 1927: Josef Stalin becomes the undisputed ruler of the Soviet Union as Leon Trotsky is expelled from the Communist Party.  In April 1906, Stalin attended the RSDLP Fourth Congress in Stockholm; this was his first trip outside the Russian Empire.  He also permitted a wider range of cultural expression, notably permitting formerly suppressed writers and artists like Anna Akhmatova and Dmitri Shostakovich to disperse their work more widely. Joseph Stalin (born as Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili) (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Georgian politician who became leader of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death.  His growing influence was reflected in the naming of various locations after him; in June 1924 the Ukrainian mining town of Yuzovka became Stalino, and in April 1925, Tsaritsyn was renamed Stalingrad on the order of Mikhail Kalinin and Avel Enukidze.  He took increasingly long holidays; in 1950 and again in 1951 he spent almost five months vacationing at his Abkhazian dacha.  Conservative social policies were promoted to enhance social discipline and boost population growth; this included a focus on strong family units and motherhood, the re-criminalisation of homosexuality, restrictions placed on abortion and divorce, and the abolition of the Zhenotdel women's department.  Both Stalin and Mao believed that a swift victory would ensue.  In or about December 1914, Pereprygia gave birth to Stalin's child, although the infant soon died. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged from the war as global superpowers. I saw the other side as well – his high intelligence, that fantastic grasp of detail, his shrewdness and his surprising human sensitivity that he was capable of showing, at least in the war years.  He was born on 18 December [O.S.  The USSR underwent a massive economic transformation.  He was capable of self-righteous indignation, and was resentful, vindictive, and vengeful, holding onto grievances against others for many years. , Stalin married Kato Svanidze in a church ceremony at Senaki in July 1906. , As General Secretary, Stalin had had a free hand in making appointments to his own staff, implanting his loyalists throughout the party and administration. , Official records reveal 799,455 documented executions in the Soviet Union between 1921 and 1953; 681,692 of these were carried out between 1937 and 1938, the years of the Great Purge. It said the Soviet leader, who came to power in 1928, had suffered a cerebral haemorrhage on Wednesday night.  They achieved high levels of industrial productivity, outstripping that of Germany. Port city of Batumi agreement was also strained amid their arguments and mental. Diplomat to meet with Lenin although rarely talked about his sex life proletariat and their enemies would intensify as developed... 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