While some claim that Hồ Chí Minh Thought is used as a veil for the Party leadership since they, according to this version, have stopped believing in communism, other claim this is not true considering that Hồ Chí Minh was an avid supporter of the dictatorship of the proletariat. The National Assembly is the only organ vested with constitutional and legislative powers. The development of democracy is aimed at creating favourable conditions for socio-economic development. The following is the official order of precedence of the Politburo according to the 12th National Party Congress. parliamentary election, and they have a five-year term. Because of these changes, power in Vietnam has become increasingly devolved.  The state must create a favorable environment for the VFF and its member organisations.  In the constitution introduced in 1992, the State represented the "workers, peasants and intellectuals". How a Trump decision on trade became a setback for democracy in Vietnam Morning traffic fills a street in Hanoi. The people's courts are the courts of first instance. Towns, districts and villages are locally accountable to some degree through elected people's councils. , The Supreme People's Prosecutor (SPP) (Vietnamese: Viện Kiểm sát Nhân dân Tối cao), the Vietnamese equivalent to an attorney general, observes the implementation process of the Ministries, ministerial-level agencies, government organs, local authorities, social and economic organisations, the armed forces, security forces and the Vietnamese citizens in general. Democracy possesses many commonly held values of humankind, however the development process of democracy differs from country to country, exhibiting particular characteristics shaped by specific historical circumstances, according to a Vietnamese social scientist. The government (Chính phủ), the main executive state power of Vietnam, is headed by the Prime Minister, who has several Deputy Prime Ministers and several ministers in charge of particular activities. This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.  In recent years, the Party has stopped representing a specific class, but instead the "interests of the entire people", which includes entrepreneurs. Associate Professor-PhD of Social Science Nguyen An Ninh writes that in Vietnam , democracy boasts typical characteristics that made the country’s regime different from others. As became clear because of the Đổi Mới reforms, the Party could not base its rule on defending only the workers and the peasants, which was officially referred to as the "working class-peasant alliance". The People's Council decides the plans for socio-economic development, decides the budget and is responsible for national defence and security at the local level. It is the People's Committee which has the responsibility to implement "the Constitution, the law, the formal written orders of superior State organs and the resolutions of the People's Council.  Marxism–Leninism was introduced to Vietnam in the 1920s and 1930s, and Vietnamese culture has been led under the banner of patriotism and Marxism–Leninism. Energized by past success but by no means content, Vietnam now aspires, by the year 2035, to modernity, industrialization, and a higher quality of life – aspirations that stand on three major pillars: economic prosperity, balanced with environmental sustainability; equity and social inclusion; and state capacity and accountability.  In addition to being the Chairman of the Council for Defence and Security and commander-in-chief of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces, the president has the procedural duty of appointing or dismissing of the Vice Presidents, Prime Minister, Deputy Chief Judge of the Supreme People's Court and Head of the Supreme People's Procuracy, with the consent of the National Assembly through a simple majority vote.  The Prime Minister of the Government (Vietnamese: Thủ tướng Chính phủ) is the head of government and is elected or dismissed by the National Assembly, at the request of the president.  Delegates vote on policies and candidate posts within the central party leadership. I am only familiar with the Vietnam war and that Vietnam has become highly capitalistic. The Chief Judge of the SPC is elected by the National Assembly, while the President of the Socialist Republic has the power to nominate and dismiss the Deputy Chief Judge and judges at the Chief Judge's request. The SPP respects the Constitution and state laws, practices public prosecution as stated by the law and ensures law enforcement. , There are seven committees of the National Assembly. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Quốc hội Việt Nam). The President (Chủ tịch nước) is elected by National Assembly for a five-year term and acts as the commander-in-chief of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and Chairman of the Council for Defence and Security. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Vietnamese Dictionary. What type of government does Vietnam have? Attempts are being made to reduce widespread corruption, but no major political reforms are on the agenda.  The National Assembly is convened twice a year, and its Standing Committee represents it between sessions.  The VFF is a voluntary mass organisation of political, socio-political and social organisations and "individuals from all classes, social strata, ethnic groups, and religions, including overseas Vietnamese.  The Central Committee did this because the majority of its members were of provincial background, or were working in the provinces; because of this, these members were the first to feel the pinch when the economy began to stagnate during Lê Khả Phiêu's rule.. The CPV lost its power to appoint or dismiss provincial-level officials in the 1990s; this is proven by the fact that Võ Văn Kiệt tried to wrestle this power back to the centre during the 1990s without success.  The National Assembly elects the Ethnic Council, which consists of a Chairman, Deputy Chairmen and other members. Vietnam-based Brotherhood for Democracy said in a statement that Vietnamese citizens have rights to exercise their political freedom in a peaceful manner to change the authoritarian communist regime into a multiparty and democratic system. , The SPC is the highest court for appeal and review, and it reports to the National Assembly, which controls the judiciary's budget and confirms the president's nominees to the SPC and SPP. In turn, officials of these local organs have the responsibility to receive and to examine them. Vietnam has a judicial system governed by the Constitution of Vietnam and national legislation enacted by National Assembly. 2.  Standing Committee members cannot simultaneously be members of the Government. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners.  The most recent presidential elections were held on 25 July 2011, when Trương Tấn Sang, the incumbent, was re-elected by the deputies (members) of the National Assembly..  It must pass resolutions which are formal orders of superior organs of state, and it acts on behalf of the constitution. Of these, the most important are the powers to announce, convene and chair the National Assembly sessions, to interpret the constitution, laws and ordinances, and to issue ordinances on those matters assigned by the National Assembly. , Article 6 of the Constitution states that "The people make use of state power through the agency of the National Assembly and the People's Councils, which represent the will and aspirations of the people, are elected by them and responsible to them". News Vietnam jails pro-democracy journalists for 'propaganda' The ruling communist regime is cracking down on dissident voices — including former staff — ahead of its national congress party. The Supreme People's Court (Tòa án Nhân dân Tối cao) is the highest court of appeal in Vietnam. All decisions of the People's Committee are taken through a collegial decision-making process, and have to "conform to the will of the majority. All citizens who are 18 or older, regardless of ethnic group, gender, social position, belief, religion, level of education, occupation or length of residency have the right to vote, the exceptions being the mentally disabled and those people who have been deprived of the right to vote by law. Since the Central Committee only meets twice a year, the Politburo implements the policies of the National Congress. In addition, a number of people use the status of incomplete democracy in Viet Nam as the reason behind every social issue. To say that the United States is not a democracy is correct if democracy is defined in a way that no government on Earth, past or present, qualifies as one. Opposition to governance has been characterised by sporadic calls for reform by minor groups and rare, small protests. Most international observers describe Vietnam as more of a dictatorship than a democracy. , Nguyễn Sinh Hùng, the Chairman of the National Assembly, nominated Trương Tấn Sang for the Presidency. I myself come from a post-sovietic country. ... the Vietnamese government frequently punished people for criticizing the government or for joining groups to promote democracy or human rights. Lê Thị Thu Ba, a member of the Party's Central Committee and Chairman of the Committee of Law during the 12th National Assembly (2007–2011), was not re-elected to the National Assembly.  Executive power is exercised by the government and the President of Vietnam. Its aim is to create "a strong, independent, prosperous and democratic country with an equitable and civilized society, to realise socialism and ultimately, communism." The Judiciary is independent of the executive. December 16, 2016 / Meg Patterson. The committees provide the National Assembly and its Standing Committee with their opinions on the legislative programme. The legislature is, according to the constitution, the highest organ of the state.  The current Vietnamese state traces its direct lineage back to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the 1945 August Revolution led by Hồ Chí Minh. Its powers includes the enactment and amendment of the constitution and laws; the adoption of the government budget; supervising the Government of Vietnam and other holders of public powers responsible to the National Assembly; and appointing members of the judiciary. These ideologies guide the activities of the Party, while promoting "the nation's traditions, and absorbing other nations' essential ideas. , Local officials of the Vietnamese Fatherland Front, its local head, and officials from other mass organisations in the locality have the right to attend the meetings of the People's Council and the People's Committee if relevant problems are discussed. The Central Committee, which is elected by the National Congress every fifth year, implements the decisions of the National Congress in the five-year period. But of those running outside of the Party, 150 had secured ... Read moreVietnamese ’Democracy’ in Action Which countries share a land border with... Did the Vietnam War or the Great Society cost... Why does Vietnamese use the Roman alphabet? (15). Below the SPC are district and provincial people's courts, military tribunals, and administrative, economic and labor courts. Despite foreign criticism, it is generally believed that the National Assembly has become more powerful in recent years. Bill Clinton had a chance to advance the cause of freedom and democracy in Vietnam 31 years ago. The composition of the SPC includes the Chief Justice (Vietnamese: Chánh án Tòa án Nhân dân Tối cao), Deputy Chief Judge, jurors and court secretaries. Contrary to some accounts, democracy exists in name only in the country ahead of upcoming legislative polls. But what they were doing was strangling freedom and extinguishing all hope of democracy in Vietnam. According to the Party's statute, amended at the 9th National Congresson 22 April 2001, the CPV was "established and trained by President Hồ Chí Minh, has led the Vietnamese people to carry out successfully the August Revolution, establishing the Democratic Republic of Việt Nam, now the Soci…  In his victory speech, Trương Tấn Sang said, "I pledge to improve my moral quality and study the example of the late President Hồ Chí Minh to cooperate with the government to bring Vietnam to become a fully industrialized country by 2015. The structure of the SPC (from the top down) is as follows: Council of Judges, Commission of Judges, Central Military Court, Criminal Court, Civil Court, Appeal Court, and assisting staff. The common forms of democracy are direct democracy and representative democracy. Jurors play an essential role, and defenders have the right of defence and to hire a lawyer.  According to Article 125 of the constitution, "The People's Council and the People's Committee shall make regular reports on the local situation in all fields to the Fatherland Front and the mass organisations; shall listen to their opinions and proposals on local power building and socio-economic development; shall cooperate with them in urging the people to work together with the State for the implementation of socio-economic, national-defence, and security tasks in the locality.". " The CPV is subject to Vietnamese laws and the Constitution. It is responsible for solving organisational problems and implementing the demands of the Central Committee. The Central Committee elects the Politburo in the aftermath of the Party Congress. " Its organisation has been modelled after the state structure, and the VFF has its own independent statute. Hi everyone, I wanted to ask what is the political situation in Vietnam and is Vietnam democratic.  The deputy (member) of the People's Council acts on the behalf of the people, and has the right to make proposals to the People's Council and other local State organs. Vietnam is a one-party socialist republic. It supervises and guides the People's Councils and their activities, and directs, regulates and coordinates the activities of the Ethnic Council and the committees of the National Assembly. Is Vietnam a democracy or dictatorship? A cultural ground zero in a police state that beats democracy advocates with iron bars, Vietnam gets away with being a bad actor because many people want to do business with its enterprising citizens, or enjoy the country’s pleasures. Services, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Vietnam's judiciary is also hampered by a shortage of lawyers and by rudimentary trial procedures. The number of self-nominated candidates was four times higher than the previous election.  According to Pierre Brocheux, the author of Ho Chi Minh: a Biography, the current state ideology is Hồ Chí Minh Thought, with Marxism–Leninism playing a secondary role. There are 63 provincial units including 5 cities.  Marxism–Leninism, which is a class-based ideology, lost its legitimacy because of the mixed economy. They hold elections for executive and legislative officials, what would seem to be the minimum requirement for a democracy. The current constitution was adopted on 28 November 2013 by the National Assembly of Vietnam. It is also responsible for the effectiveness of the state apparatus itself from the top down, stabilisation in the country and the observance of the constitution. The Government (Vietnamese: Chính phủ) is the executive arm of the National Assembly and the highest administrative body of the Vietnamese state. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. Vietnam, a one-party Communist state, has one of south-east Asia's fastest-growing economies and has set its sights on becoming a developed nation by 2020. The Secretariat oversees the work of the Commissions of the Central Committee. Since the full Central Committee meets only once a year, the Politburo functions as the Party's leading collective decision-making body. The National Assembly has 500 members, elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. Under its current government, Vietnam is a one-party,... Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. It is as useful to say, “The Vietnam War wasn’t a war, because Congress didn’t declare war.” This policy continued until the 6th National Congress, when Nguyễn Văn Linh took power. Military judges and assessors are selected by the MOD and the SPC, but the SPC has supervisory responsibility. The General Secretary is the de facto leader of Vietnam. The SPP issues arrest warrants, sometimes retroactively.  The CPV's claim to legitimacy was retained following the collapse of communism in 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 by its commitment to the thoughts of Hồ Chí Minh, according to Sophie Quinn-Judge. Create your account.  487 deputies of the National Assembly, meaning 97.4 percent, voted in favour of Trương Tấn Sang. ", The National Congress is the party's highest organ.  The final class barrier was removed in 2002, when party members were allowed to engage in private activities. There is not a major movement in Vietnam to reform the current political system. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. , The Central Committee (CC) is the CPV's most powerful institution. The country's highest judicial organ is the Supreme People's Court (SPC) (Vietnamese: Tòa án Nhân dân Tối cao). by the Heinrich Böll, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 11:58. Vietnam has a three-tier local government structure: provincial, district and commune levels. Vietnam: Vietnam is a country located in Southeast Asia, sharing borders with Laos, China, and Cambodia, and lying along the South China Sea. The Party's ideological foundation is Marxism–Leninism and Hồ Chí Minh Thoughts. Voter turnout was 99.51 percent; nearly 62 million people voted. Provinces and municipalities are centrally controlled by the national government. The parliament adopted the current Constitution of Vietnam, its fifth, on 28 November 2013. The National Assembly is a unicameral legislative body. ... As with Vietnam veterans, it seems likely that the generation whose youth was shaped by the zenith of neoliberalism will never take the White House. The CPV espouses Marxism–Leninism and Hồ Chí Minh Thought, the thoughts of the late Hồ Chí Minh. Vietnam is a country located in Southeast Asia, sharing borders with Laos, China, and Cambodia, and lying along the South China Sea.  Deputies (members) of the National Assembly are directly elected on a democratic basis through secret ballots. Although the constitution provides for independent judges and lay assessors (who lack administrative training), the United States Department of State maintains that Vietnam lacks an independent judiciary, in part because the Communist Party selects judges and vets them for political reliability. The political system in Vietnam is led by the CPV, and it "leads, respects and promotes the role of the State, the Vietnamese Fatherland Front (VFF) and other socio-political organisations. It is the country's ruling party and promotes the "mastery of the people over the country". " The establishment of People's Council and People's Committees is determined by law. Several years ago, my husband and I traveled through the country, from Hanoi in the north to Ho Chi Minh in the south. On Vietnam and Democracy. Although Vietnam is no longer a communist country and has a market-driven economy, the Communist Party remains the only legal political party.  It delegates some of its powers to the Secretariat and the Politburo when it is not in session. ", "Head of Government in Vietnam - GOVERNMENT IN VIETNAM", "Preamble of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam", Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Nguyen Phu Trong re-elected Party General Secretary, "TIN HOẠT ĐỘNG CỦA CÁC TỔ CHỨC THÀNH VIÊN", "Truong Tan Sang elected Vietnamese state president", National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, "One-party Vietnam votes in national election", "Election results for NA and People's Council deputies announced", "Party wins big in Vietnam, but with a few twists", "Truong Tan Sang nominated as Vietnam's State President", "National Assembly elects new State President", "Report on completed census results: The 1/4/2009 Population and Housing Census", VUFO-NGO, Directory of Vietnam government ministry and agency websites, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Politics_of_Vietnam&oldid=996406093, Articles containing Vietnamese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Library of Congress Country Studies, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 26 February 2016 (Acting Head since 2015), General Secretary of the Central Committee, Head of the Steering Committee of the Central Judicial Reform, Steering Committee of the Central Judicial Reform, Active Citizens under Political Wraps: Experiences from Myanmar/Burma and Vietnam pub. The politics of Vietnam are defined by a single-party socialist republic framework, where the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam is the Party leader and head of the Politburo, holding the highest position in the one-party system. Committee membership is determined by the National Assembly.  Notable member organisations of the VFF include the General Confederation of Labour, the Hồ Chí Minh Communist Youth Union and the Veteran Association, among others. The Vietnamese constitution and legislation provide for regular elections for the office of the President of the Socialist Republic, the National Assembly and the People's Councils. Only in this way, can democracy play a positive role in the development of a nation.  Because of the devolution of power, the powers of the Central Committee have increased substantially; for instance, when a two-thirds majority of the Politburo voted in favour of retaining Lê Khả Phiêu as General Secretary (the leader of Vietnam), the Central Committee voted against the Politburo's motion and voted unanimously in favour of removing Lê Khả Phiêu from his post of General Secretary. After achieving independent from France in 1945, Vietnam was divided between north and south, before being reunified under a communist government in 1976 following the end of the Vietnam War. Vietnam is a socialist republic led by the Communist Party of Vietnam. Outside the ruling troika, it was Nguyễn Xuân Phúc, the Chairman of the Government Office, who was elected with the highest margin, with 94.59 percent of the votes. It practices "criticism, self-criticism, and strict discipline" and pursues "collective leadership and individual responsibility, and promoting comradeship and solidarity in line with the Party's political programs and statutes. The Supreme People's Procuracy observes the implementation of state organs and makes sure that Vietnamese citizens follow the law. ", Provinces and municipalities are subdivided into towns, districts and villages. " According to the Party's statute, amended at the 9th National Congress on 22 April 2001, the CPV was "established and trained by President Hồ Chí Minh, has led the Vietnamese people to carry out successfully the August Revolution, establishing the Democratic Republic of Việt Nam, now the Socialist Republic of Việt Nam, to defeat foreign invaders, to abolish the colonial and feudalist regime, to liberate and reunify the country, and then carry out the cause of renovation and socialist construction and firmly defend national independence. 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